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Twenty selected studies relevant to the current subject were reviewed. This study used an exploratory single-case study design and purposeful sampling techniques. The methodology consisted of in-depth, semistructured, open-ended interview with leaders from the community and employees from each of the various departments throughout City Hall. Thirteen participants who represented a diverse selection of community leaders and employees were interviewed because saturation occurred quicker than expected. Interviews, observation, and archival data were the primary sources of data collection.

The scope of this research was limited to the mayor of a metropolitan area in the Northeast region of the USA. With cross-cultural leadership literature being sparse and cross-cultural studies predominately done under the auspices of global leadership studies, this study addressed the significant gap in religious cross-cultural leadership. The process of bridging the gap in religious cross-cultural leadership helped in developing a biblical model of cross-cultural leadership addressing cultural hegemony, the postcolonial theory, the Western missionary enterprise, and the boundary line between the global north and global south.


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  • Examining the Impact of Leadership Styles on the Motivation of U.S. Teachers;
  • The religious cross-cultural leadership particularities of calling, intellectual humility, religious messaging, and interreligious dialogue served as the foundation for a biblical model of crosscultural leadership. On an intrapersonal level, the biblical model of cross-cultural leadership included calling, as in the selection, personal leadership development, and assignment to a specific region within the eight major cultural zones of Western Christianity and the orthodox, Islamic, Confucian, Japanese, Hindu, African, and Latin American worlds.

    The biblical model of cross-cultural leadership engagements in cross-cultural contexts on a meso-level includes intellectual humility and the ongoing experiential learning of seeking concrete experiences, developing reflective observations, formulating abstract conceptualizations, and testing and experimenting. The goal of biblical religious messaging is respectful Christian persuasion in interreligious dialogues. On a macrolevel, biblical model of cross-cultural leadership is in boundary-spanning global leadership bridging the social boundaries between people first in local settings and then in international contexts.

    The biblical model of religious crosscultural leadership on a macrolevel is also engaging in world Christianity, an emerging field that investigates and seeks to understand Christian communities, faith, and practice as they are found on six continents, expressed in diverse ecclesial traditions, and informed by the multitude of historical and cultural experiences—an attempt to give voice to the underrepresented and marginalized communities of faith. This qualitative study explored the leadership preferences of the older half of the Millennial generation born between and in the United States.

    As Millennials rapidly enter the workforce, organizations will inevitably change. With that, the way leaders lead will also need to change. Literature has provided suggestions for how to best lead Millennials, but very little research has been done from the Millennial perspective asking Millennials how they want to be led. In-depth interviews explored the leadership preferences of the Millennial participants. The 23 participants were purposefully selected from a population of Millennials who were born in the United States between and , lived in the United States until at least the age of 18, and have been working full time for a minimum of 5 years.

    The research revealed that Millennials want peer-like relationships with their leaders that are characterized by transparency, collaboration, and two-way feedback. They want hard-working leaders who lead by example and can serve as experienced mentors. Millennials want leaders who care about them as individuals, both inside and outside of the workplace. They want selfless leaders who put the needs of others first. Millennials want empathetic leaders who recognize that life is more than just work and will allow flexibility accordingly.

    As Millennials continue to join the workforce in substantial numbers, organizational leaders need to reevaluate their current leadership style to ensure they can effectively lead the newest generation in the workforce. Millennials believe they are unique, and they want their leadership tailored.

    One leadership style will not work for all Millennials. Leaders will need to be flexible enough to adjust their leadership approach to each unique individual and each unique situation.

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    Recommendations for future research consist of expansion to include individuals from the entire generation born from to and to conduct a longitudinal study to determine if the leadership preferences of Millennials change over time. In the age of technological advancements such as the smart phone, laptop, and iPad, employers have nonstop access to employees, blurring the lines between work and personal life. In an effort to provide more insight into the work—life balance challenges that result from constant access, this research study examined afterhours communication by way of cell phones, computers, and social media and the relationship with job satisfaction and work—life balance.

    The absence of work—life balance proves detrimental to organizations, leading to higher absenteeism and higher turnover rates. The instruments used to measure these variables include the Facebook Use Scale, which measures Facebook use and engagement with coworkers after hours; the Technology-Assisted Supplemental Work Survey, which measures the use of technology for work purposes after hours; the Work—Life Balance Scale, which measures work and nonwork conflict; and the Job Satisfaction Survey, which measures employee level of satisfaction. The quantitative study used correlation analysis to determine the relationship between after-hours communication as an independent variable and two dependent variables—work—life balance and job satisfaction.

    Participants were recruited through social media and included working professionals across multiple industries. Despite findings from previous research, the results from this study indicated linear correlations between after-hours communication, work—life balance, and job satisfaction when communication is exchanged through computers and cell phones. Additionally, there was no significance found in relation to after-hours communication by way of Facebook and work—life balance and job satisfaction. Due to an imbalance in population sample and insignificant findings, the study indicated a need for future research.

    George discussed how the complexities of 21st-century corporations demand new leadership; George believed leaders need to lead with purpose, promoting values, integrity, and a strong ethical system. Data were collected from a sample of participants that worked in corporate America. Theoretical implications of these findings are discussed as well as recommendations for future research. While leadership is mostly a positive phenomenon, the potential for exposure to nonconstructive leadership exists. DLT includes Weberian charismatic phenomena seen as nonconstructive behavior. Both charismatic and destructive leaders, unlike other leadership styles, need a strong influential relationship, positive or negative, between the leader and followers.

    Sociorhetorical interpretation, a multifaceted tool, was used to explore the text in Philemon. Sociorhetorical interpretation of Philemon provide insights differentiating the use of charismatic power in Christian contexts from DLT and Weber. It flows from God and is realized between the leader and followers. Second and consequently, this sharing of power aims to align all participants with Christian morals and values.

    Therefore, Pauline charisma can be recognized by behavior conforming to Christ deity —rooted in love and absent from nonconstructive attributes. Abusive behavior is antithetical to the Pauline use of power in Philemon. I proposed exegetical and qualitative analyses of Daniel 3 that would provide a framework rooted in intellectual aspects of transformational leadership theory TLT for human resource development HRD consultants to use.

    The study involved multiple methods of qualitative interpretation and analysis to implement theoretical triangulation into the findings. The study included the following theories for interpretation: a hermeneutics, b symbolic interactionism, c narratology, and d systems theory. The key trait of TLT that this study emphasized involved intellectual stimulation Yukl, According to many scholars in the HRD field, intellectual methods of stimulation used to create behavioral change include cognitive, psychological, and transformational qualities of learning.

    The analytical approach in this study included the following methods: a sociorhetorical, b first-cycle coding, c second-cycle coding, and d content analysis. The inclusion of multiple methods of analysis served the purpose of using both religious and nonreligious methods of interpretation so that the findings contained increased generalizability to other contexts and so that future researchers may use the findings to conduct more research. The result included a conceptual framework composed of 10 concepts related to TLT, HRD, adult learning, and spiritual aspects of transformational learning.

    Twenty-first-century organizations are operating amidst a complex, powerful, and fluid environment. Young adults poised to enter the workforce are a dominant force shaping and reshaping contemporary organizations. Amongst this diverse population of organizational entrants is a marginalized and untapped group of young autistic adults Hillier et al.

    Leadership Styles

    According to The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention , nearly , autistic individuals are approaching an employable age. Gwynette personal communication, December 12, suggested the symptomatology of autism present barriers for young adults in acquiring and maintaining meaningful employment. Johnson and Joshi suggested autistic employees experience stigmas due to perceived social impairments. This bounded case study explored what organizations can do to engage autistic employees. The main theoretical frameworks that anchored this study were engagement, perceived organizational support, person—organization fit, person—supervisor fit, and person—job fit.

    Purposeful sampling was used to acquire a medical practitioner who specializes in autism spectrum disorder, a leader and self-advocate who managed autistic employees and serves as an autism consultant, and high-functioning autistic young adults ages with employment experience. Results found individualized consideration as the cornerstone for organizational supports that engage the autistic cohort.

    Additional themes that emerged included areas such as wellness, acceptance, humility, intention, open-mindedness in leading, stability, predictability, assertive communication, demonstrations in learning, long-term support, and sensory support. The illuminated concepts and practical strategies enhance engagement of high-functioning young autistic adults in the workplace. CLTs are cognitive structures or beliefs about leadership effectiveness that are shared by members of particular national societies but not as strongly by members of other societies.

    The GLOBE study focused on comparing societal cultures defined in terms of national identity and geographic location but did not consider that, within those societies, there are subgroups of people whose mental programs about leadership may have been formed in other cultures, as is the case of migrant communities.

    The present study examined two subgroups of Latinos in the United States i. The GLOBE study identified seven leader behaviors that are culturally contingent—they are perceived in some cultures as enhancing outstanding leadership, while in other cultures the same behaviors are viewed as inhibiting outstanding leadership.

    Regression models were used to examine the relationships between perception of culturally contingent CLT leader behaviors and both LE and OC for each of the subgroups. The difference in the regression coefficients of the regression models of each subsample were examined to test the hypothesized differences between the two groups of participants. Data were collected using a cross-sectional survey within the context of Latino church volunteers. The results showed positive relations, mainly between self-sacrificial, status-conscious, bureaucratic, and humane orientation leader behaviors and LE and OC.

    The only statistically significant differences between the models for each subgroup occurred when examining internally competitive, face-saver, and autonomous leader behaviors. Theoretical and practical implications of these results are presented, and suggestions for future research are discussed. The purpose of this quantitative exploratory research was to investigate the influence of essential servant leader behavior on the organizational environment.

    In the knowledge-based economy, the organizational environment requires members with a reciprocal sharing behavior. Without the sharing of unique talents i. Hierarchical regression analysis revealed a significant mediating influence for both anticipated reciprocal relationships and knowledge sharing on the relationship between essential servant leadership behavior and worker engagement but failed to reveal any noticeable moderation effect from worker discernment. The results of this research show servant leadership theory offers the prospect of a moral-based leadership model through which multilevel i.

    This study established relationships linking essential servant leader behavior, organizational climate, employee sharing behavior, and worker engagement. Grounded in theory suggesting servant leadership as a leadership style with a moral underlining, this study offers a new way of thinking about follower motivation. The purpose of this phenomenological case study was to explore how small business leaders and entrepreneurs identify and select effective coopetitive partners.

    Coopetition is used by firms to gain competitive advantages through collaborative efforts with competing organizations. The findings from this research provide small business leaders and entrepreneurs with insight into the behaviors, beliefs, and attitudes regarding the identification and selection of coopetitive partners from the lived experiences of 10 small business leaders. These findings offer leaders information they may use to more effectively determine practices to support their coopetitive partnership selection process.

    This research used the qualitative, phenomenological case study method to examine factors used by small business leaders and entrepreneurs in their identification and selection of coopetitive partners. Research was conducted using purposeful sampling and face-to-face semistructured interviews. Participants in this research had employed coopetitive strategies successfully in conducting their business. The theory of planned behavior Ajzen, was used as the basis for predicting behavior. The research findings illustrate the importance of leader relationships and networks in identifying and selecting coopetitive partners.

    A significant finding was the influence of customers in the selection of coopetitive partners. Additionally, this study showed how small business leaders and entrepreneurs developed relationships with their coopetitive partners and the attributes sought in their selection. Emotional intelligence is a vital factor in increasing organizational effectiveness, satisfaction, and retention. Generally, research on emotional intelligence and organizational commitment has focused on organizational and environmental factors in contexts outside the ecclesial setting.

    Participants were pastoral care participants. The data were collected via snowball sampling. This study examined spiritual leadership from a Christian perspective and the relationship of Christian leadership to spirituality in the workplace based on leadership principles gleaned from Acts 2 and The study drew on sacred and secular spiritual leadership and spirituality in the workplace theories to provide the framework for understanding the concepts.

    The methodology employed the texture analyses of sociorhetorical critical methods Robbins, b and hermeneutical and exegetical interpretation to reveal eight themes and 11 leadership principles that are ontological in the nature of leadership and anthropological in the context of the workplace as found in the pericope.

    The research revealed that spiritual leadership that is Christian is distinctive because of the ontological transformation of the leader producing purity and power through the work of the Holy Spirit. In addition, the study indicated that spiritual leaders are motivated and empowered by wholehearted devotion to Christ and self-sacrificing compassion for others, particularly those who are suffering, in need, and neglected.

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    The results demonstrated that Christian leadership is egalitarian and pluri-form with no distinction in its applicability in religious and secular contexts. Further, Christian leadership principles lived in the workplace are effective, but the results may not be measured by Western concepts of immediacy. The purpose of this study was to examine the role of trigger events and leadership crucibles in the lives of authentic leaders by answering the question: Do trigger events and leadership crucibles play a significant role in authentic leadership development?

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    The study was based on two theories: authentic leadership theory and born-versus-made theory. Participants were provided by a professional executive development coach and qualified as authentic leaders if they scored between 64 and 80 on the Authentic Leadership Questionnaire.

    The qualified leaders were then asked to participate in a qualitative interview utilizing an interview guide born out of relevant literature. The interview followed the guidelines of the critical incident technique. The interviews were recorded and then transcribed. The transcriptions were subsequently coded several times, categorizing and extrapolating as much data as possible to develop a better understanding of the effects of trigger events and leadership crucibles in the lives of authentic leaders.

    The data indicated that trigger events and leadership crucibles play a significant role in authentic leadership development. This research was conducted in response to calls for future research in the areas of spiritual calling and followership. Though research in the area of calling has become more prevalent, it has not distinctly focused on spiritual calling as identified through a biblical worldview. Recent endeavors in this area have yielded development and substantiation of a spiritual calling scale, opening wider the doors of research opportunity. Followership research has been gaining momentum in recent decades; however, authentic followership remains a nascent area, only recently gaining attention, construct development, and tools for measurement.

    To more fully explore each of these domains and potential interactions, this quantitative study was conducted using survey methodology utilizing the newly developed scales in each of these areas. Data evaluation was conducted through multiple regression analysis and revealed positive relationships between spiritual calling and each dimension of authentic followership, and spiritual calling was indicated as an antecedent of authentic followership.

    The research and findings contribute empirically to the body of knowledge in these newly emerging areas and provide further validation of measurement tools for use in future research. The research findings also establish a connection between individual spirituality and embodiment of followership. Implications of this connection are discussed and areas of future research considered.

    Bilgin and Morton posited that the long period of colonialism and the Cold War democracy tended to make way for many strong African states as expressions of power. This provided a new paradigm of freedom meant to afford the triumph of liberal economics. The emergence of this new democratic paradigm of leadership is intended to encourage participation that guarantees the rights and freedoms of African citizenry. Understanding the dynamics of this paradigm shift is very necessary and key to reconciling, integrating, and synergizing disparities contained within these dynamics. The dynamics of this paradigm shift may be essential to future leadership development efforts in Africa and in the Democratic Republic of the Congo DRC as a nation.

    The current phenomenological study explored the various factors identified as having a devastating impact on the DRC.

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    Data were analyzed, and results indicated the issue of state failure was a factor that affects political, socioeconomic, and leadership development in the DRC. While corruption conveys the true situation in the country, results also indicated that the DRC needs good and effective leadership that imbibes the culture of integrity as competent for national transformation. In essence, the development and advancement of the DRC as a nation leans on the ability of good leadership. The attribute of good leadership is seen as a virtue that must be valued by political leaders in order to properly manage and direct the affairs of the DRC.

    This qualitative study explored expectations for leadership in early phase organizing of regional networks in the case of a statewide initiative called GO Virginia. Archival and observational data were used, as well as interview data from individual and group interviews with 48 participants. Leaning on theory posited by Huxham and Vangen , this study contributes to the limited stream of research into leadership in collaborative regional network settings by uniquely maintaining a referent focus on the regional level while exploring expectations across levels state and regional and sectors private, public, and nonprofit involved.

    No significant variations in expected regional network leadership attributes and behaviors, which are reported at both individual and group levels, were discovered. Notwithstanding the importance of structuration, this study lent support for viewing leadership as socially grounded phenomena in which, given characteristics of multiorganizational, multisector network settings that are profiled in this study, ethical leadership and the use of highly participative, dialogical group processes and values-based perspectives are particularly important.

    The purpose of this dissertation was to further the Daniel research on workplace spirituality WS and workplace stress WPS to investigate further the research question on whether personal spirituality has an influence on WPS. The literature reviewed included research conducted by the American Institute of Stress AIS , highlighting the influence of WPS on productivity, personal health, and the bottom-line across U.

    Additionally, spirituality scholars have reflected on the rise of personal spirituality in the workplace. I investigated the hypotheses that there was a negative correlation between personal spirituality and WPS; additionally, controlling for gender and tenure, I attempted to determine if there was any statistical significance between PF, UN and CN, and WPS.

    SA Journal of Human Resource Management

    Results obtained from the data computed indicated there was no statistically significant correlation or predictive causality between personal spirituality and WPS. However, there were observed multicollinearity among the independent variables, with evidence of negative correlations with PF, CN, and WPS, though not of statistical significance. The research hypotheses were consequently rejected in favor of the null hypothesis. This research consequently enhanced insight into notions that personal spirituality influenced workplace stress.

    Scholars have examined the role of religious affiliation and activity to measure the effects on economic activity and found a distinction between extrinsic and intrinsic religious motivations. Researchers have found a positive relationship between intrinsic religiosity and economic growth, particularly in entrepreneurship. However, the dearth of empirical and quantitative research to determine the predictive variables that measure intrinsic religious motivations in relation to entrepreneurial activity calls for future research opportunities.

    These instruments were used to examine the connection between SAI-awareness of God, CVQ presence-transcendent summons, validated intrinsic religious motivation, and ESE-developing new product and market opportunities to EIQ-entrepreneurial intention and AEO-association and connection. The GPower 3 calculator computed a minimum sample size of 89 participants assuming power at 0.

    SurveyMonkey was used to collect data from a population sample of participants. Validated intrinsic religious motivation and ESE-developing new product and market opportunities showed significance in predicting both EIQ-entrepreneurial intention and AEO-association and connection. Researchers must consider future studies to elucidate the relationship between spirituality and entrepreneurial activity.

    Additionally, the participant employed a four-step variant of the original Basadur Simplex creative problem-solving model to assist in aiding the participant in his decision making during the examination. This research was built on two simple premises: Leadership involves relationships, and relationships are influenced by emotion. However, the relevant literature has indicated that the influence of leader emotions on creative tasks, analytical tasks, and error management culture is complex and even contradictory.

    For this reason, a qualitative approach was used as a first step. But in context to the long term aspects, autocratic may possess differences in various departments of the firm and may lead to negative results. In this regard, managerial level people of Ryanair should consider system approach to management because with the help of this they will be able to understand that all departments are interlinked to each other and for attaining the aim and objectives each need to be carried out in effective manner. Therefore, system approach could be used as the modern approach to management by the CEO of the Ryanair.

    Thirdly, contingency approach is known as the situation approach. It is considered as one of the key to effective management. Nowadays, there are several companies which are using this approach to carry out their operations. The main purpose of this approach is that it accepts the dynamics and complexities of the organisation structure. As per the view point of various authors, an organisation is affected by the environment in which it operates.

    This environment consists of physical resources, climate, persons, culture, economic and market conditions and their laws Anderson and Anderson, According to this approach there is no perfect way to handle the problems of the business. As the actions of managerial level people totally depends on the situation. Therefore, this approach shows that, decisions and actions of the managers highly depends upon the situation rather than the core principles of the management. This approach could be fruitful for both organisations as they are operating in such a competitive environment it becomes crucial to modify and enhance the performance of business so that desired corporate aim and objectives can be achieved.

    Apart from management approaches, there are several other skills and attributes that managers of operating in both the firms should possess such as time management skills, conflict management skills, communication skills etc Beck and Cowan, Firstly, conflict management skills, being a manager to such a giant corporation this is one of the most crucial skills that manager should possess.

    However, working in such a complex and competitive environment, conflict management skills helps in carrying the team or employees in better and effective way as well as provide them right direction to carry out the work and achieve the business aims and objectives effectively Chemers, In case of Ryanair where employees are not offered any platform to share their point of view and ideas may create conflict situation in different department therefore, top level management of cited firm should possess this skills so that they satisfy the needs and wants of internal and external stakeholders in appropriate way.

    In addition to that the conflict management skills plays important role in order to manage peaceful work environment within organization. In the case Google, it is a global multinational brand so as business entity is managing the employees from different culture and nationality Daft, In the context, conflict management skills of employees are playing important role for resolving various issues that are occurred among employees due to cultural indifferences.

    For handling various issues among employees related to work, appropriate conflict resolution skills of managers provide significant assistance for identification of reason of conflicts along with the development of appropriate judgement. It avoids injustice within organization. Therefore, it can be stated that conflict management skills of managers is playing most crucial role for ensuring peaceful relationship among different employees. It helps in application of different approaches associated with stress management.

    Secondly, time management skill is identified as most important characteristics of a managers within an multinational organization. This is because it helps managers in planning of various activities associated with the job roles and responsibilities of a manager Zhang and Bartol, In the context of Ryanair, managers have to develop various policies for handling different operations of Airline Company.

    Therefore, the time management skills of managers within Airline Company helps managers in scheduling of duties and tasks of employees. It also supports managers in scheduling of day to day operations and arrangement of meetings with superiors and subordinates. In the dynamic workplace like Google, time management skills of managers is playing most curial role. This is because it provides significant assistance to manager in identification of priorities and urgency so as manager is able to schedule his activities along with the tasks of subordinates that lead positive impact on the overall efficiency of managers along with delays Jaworski and Seng, Furthermore, it has been found that if a manager does not have efficient skills for handling various operations as per the schedule then manager who is working in Google would address several issues associated with completion of different tasks as per the predetermined schedule.

    Finally, communication skills of managers determines ability of an individual for conveying the message to others. It could be verbal and written. In the case of Ryanair, communication skills of managers is termed as most important element because it helps manager for managing conversation with consumers and subordinates. In similar way, managers of Google are able to communicate with staff or other stakeholders with a most efficient manner.

    From the above study it can be concluded that leaders are the backbone of every business. They are being responsible for assuring long term success within the organization. They have the capability to provide right kind of motivation to the employees so that they can drive on the path of innovation.

    They can offer great contribution in the achievement of goals and objectives. The aim of the study was to compare the Leadership Styles used in two different sector companies named Ryanair and Google. After performing a thorough research it can be concluded that both the companies are using different approaches of leadership.

    Ryanair has adopted autocratic style of leadership because it suits the nature of the industry in which it is operating. Hospitality industry is a very dynamic industry and needs high level of concentration on the level of services. It requires leaders who give theleadership-styles right direction and those who can maintain a complete control over all the operational levels. However the style has many drawbacks also as it can lead to demotivation and anger among the employees.

    The style needs to be adopted with adequate control. Within the Ryanair employees are not offered any platform to share their point of view and ideas. Despite of that, the CEO of the airline is leading the organization in effective manner. On the other side Google believes in adopting democratic style of leadership. This style is more appropriate for the organization because Google believes in innovation and novelty.

    These two things can emerge only when employees are engaged in the decision making process and are being asked for their suggestions. This approach aids in development of solutions which are very innovative. Google has always been a symbol of invention and this leadership style matches with the nature of its business. For instance it provides generous rewards and awards for implementing innovative ideas so that services of the company can be improved in effective way. However this style of leadership has also many drawbacks as it can lead to issues like loss of control, loss of discipline etc.

    Above all it can be said that leadership style is to be selected according the requirements of the condition. The characteristics of the leaders are to be something which are exceptional and which are applicable in every situation. His traits makes an influence on the minds of the subordinates. He must have the ability to get the things done from other with perfection. A company cannot achieve success without the contribution of leaders and managers. These people holds the responsibility to take the company to heights. They also contributes in enhancing the sales and profitability of the business.

    Employees are the assets and they have to be treated like that. They should be rewarded for their efforts in terms of both monetary and non-monetary. These things motivate them to get inspire and to perform even better. Introduction Leadership and management both are considered as essential aspect within the business as with the effective leadership individual can easily direct and lead their employees towards the goal. On the other hand, management aspect focuses on managing and organizing all the resources