Green Chemistry is environmentally safe and has very little side effects on human health and the environment Good Essays words 2. The collected product was in a viscous, liquid form; and many efforts were made to purify the product by recrystallization. However, separating two different salts was very difficult, and these attempts were not successful.
This same reaction was also repeated at room temperature, but the two reagents did not react. To prevent the diallylation, we followed the same procedure using allyl tosylate.
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The tosylate group is a less reactive, poorer nucleophile than bromide; therefore, it is less likely to remove the tosyl group Good Essays words 9. I made sure this journal article was peer reviewed to make it a more credible source by initiating a search in the SJSU library to find only peer reviewed articles.
Good Essays words 3. D in chemistry stems from my desire to be a lifelong learner and the satisfaction I have received from my research during my undergraduate studies. After visiting the University of Wisconsin-Madison during the CHOPs visitation, and speaking to the the faculty and students, I saw they share the same passion as myself in solving new problems and having an extensive education, and is why I have chosen to apply to its Ph.
D program in chemistry. What do you intend to study in grad school and why PURPOSE: The purpose of the experiment is to determine the specific types of pigments found in water-soluble marker pens by using paper chromatography and water as a solvent. Directorate-General for Research and Innovation The keys are visible in the Workprogramme — and in the brochure about RRI.
RRI is an approach that allows all societal actors researchers, citizens, policy makers, business, third sector organisations etc. RRI focuses on the participation of citizens and civil society organisations in research and innovation, the gender and ethical dimensions, the free accessibility to scientific knowledge and formal and informal science education. Responsible research and innovation is a process for better aligning research and innovation with the values, needs and expectations of society. It implies close cooperation between all stakeholders in various strands comprising: science education, definition of research agendas, access to research results and the application of new knowledge in full compliance with gender and ethics considerations.
As EAG, we can choose for one of the existing more or less authoritative characterizations, or perhaps select and recombine. Actually, last year we circumvented the problem of characterization by exhorting the other parts of Horizon to pay attention to RRI issues by developing their own diagnosis applicable to their domain, and promised to help them. Instead, they are about desirable directions to go. Diversity in Research and Innovation is a must for achieving greater creativity and promoting better results. Early and continuous iterative engagement of society in Research and Innovation is key to innovation adequacy and acceptability.
By now, there is something of a secondary industry of meetings, projects and publications about RRI; there is even a new scholarly journal, the Journal of Responsible Innovation. Rip emphasizes that responsibility is distributed and to some extent institutionalized, and part of evolving divisions of moral labour. RRI is a way of opening up existing divisions of moral labour, and negotiating about new divisions of labour.
He offers an analysis of the paths and thus reductions of complexity that appear to occur. Stilgoe et al. This is a contrast with retrospective responsibility which focuses on accountability and liability. There is a variety of discourses and practices, whether explicitly referring to RRI or not. For nanotechnology, this has led to formulations of more or less explicit codes of conduct.
At the level of individual scientists and research performing institutions, there has been a social responsibility of science movement, definitely since cf. The two movements overlap, but have different styles, the former being more into moral responsibility, the latter more into critical action. Recently, there are linkages co-alescences between critical societal groups some more constructive than others , NGOs etc. SwafS and RRI can link up with all these activities and their background positions. Concretely, we might support activities within the Member States, as we mention already in our Strategic Vision.
We have to be careful, of course, to avoid alliances that would appear to be biased. A number of conclusions were mentioned already printed in bold. For the SwafS Workprogramme —, we can draw upon this note for the calls aimed at understanding knowledge base and institutional change. RRI is the on-going process of aligning research and innovation to the values, needs and expectations of society.
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Decisions in research and innovation must consider the principles on which the European Union is founded, that is, the respect of human dignity, freedom, democracy, equality, the rule of law and the respect of human rights, including the rights of persons belonging to minorities. RRI requires that all stakeholders including civil society are responsive to each other and take shared responsibility for the processes and outcomes of research and innovation.
This means working together in: science education; the definition of research agendas; the conduct of research; the access to research results; and the application of new knowledge in society- in full respect of gender equality, the gender dimension in research and ethics considerations. More than a decade of research and pilot activities on the interplay between science and society points to three main findings.
First, we cannot achieve technology acceptance by way of good marketing.
Second, diversity in research and innovation as well as the gender perspective is vital for enhancing creativity and improving scientific quality. And third, early and continuous engagement of all stakeholders is essential for sustainable, desirable and acceptable innovation. Hence, excellence today is about more than ground-breaking discoveries — it includes openness, responsibility and the co-production of knowledge. The benefits of RRI go beyond alignment with society: it ensures that research and innovation deliver on the promise of smart, inclusive and sustainable solutions to our societal challenges; it engages new perspectives, new innovators and new talent from across our diverse European society, allowing to identify solutions which would otherwise go unnoticed; it builds trust between citizens, and public and private institutions in supporting research and innovation; and it reassures society about embracing innovative products and services; it assesses the risks and the way these risks should be managed.
European regions and countries are already engaged in this approach. Societal demands for ambitious environmental policies led to creative social and technological innovations such as fuel efficient vehicles, solar devices or mobility and recycling solutions based on sharing. The present declaration builds on the Lund Declaration, which called for an emphasis on societal challenges, and on the Vilnius Declaration, which underlined that a resilient partnership with all relevant actors is required if research is to serve society.
We believe the conditions are now right for RRI to underpin European research and innovation endeavour and therefore call on all stakeholders to work together for inclusive and sustainable solutions to our societal challenges. Integrating RRI in the design and implementation of research and innovation programmes;. Networking existing initiatives that support RRI knowhow, expertise and competence, within and between EU Member States and between sectors;.
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Supporting global RRI initiatives in view of the global nature of our grand challenges. Implement institutional changes that foster RRI by: Reviewing their own procedures and practices in order to identify possible RRI barriers and opportunities at organization level;. Creating experimental spaces to engage civil society actors in the research process as sources of knowledge and partners in innovation;.
Developing and implementing strategies and guidelines for the acknowledgment and promotion of RRI;. Adapting curricula and developing trainings to foster awareness, know-how, expertise and competence of RRI;. Skip to Main Content. Search in: This Journal Anywhere. Advanced search. Submit an article Journal homepage. Pages Received 05 Aug The clothes of the emperor. An essay on RRI in and around Brussels. A diagnosis of the situation, in three steps The first step is the observation that RRI being on the agenda is a part of larger developments.
View all notes If the clothes help construct the emperor, then EAGs but also scholars and organizations are co-responsible for the construct. View all notes Research funding organizations, now targeted to do something for example in the Rome Declaration see Appendix 3 , are not the only sites where the emperor becomes clothed. Acknowledgements This essay draws on long-standing discussions and joint reflections with Erik Fisher. Disclosure statement No potential conflict of interest was reported by the authors.
Responsible Research and Innovation RRI Responsible research and innovation is an approach that anticipates and assesses potential implications and societal expectations with regard to research and innovation, with the aim to foster the design of inclusive and sustainable research and innovation. In many cases, inter- and transdisciplinary solutions will have to be developed, which cut across the multiple specific objectives of Horizon Within the specific objectives of programme, actions can focus on thematic elements of RRI, as well as on more integrated approaches to promote RRI uptake.
Introduction: why this note? RRI is a package implementing five different and complementary agendas within Research and Innovation: gender, ethics, open science, education to science, multi-actor engagement and in particular the engagement of citizens and civil society in research and innovation activities. Clearly, these are background considerations. We can profit from them, occasionally when formulating items in the calls for —, and generally to position what we are doing in broader frameworks. Other relevant activities and insights, at different levels There is a variety of discourses and practices, whether explicitly referring to RRI or not.
View all notes More than a decade of research and pilot activities on the interplay between science and society points to three main findings. Article Metrics Views. Lipshutz presents his work on developing an alternative to organic solvents that is safer and generates less waste. Modern materials use an ever-increasing number of elements, and some supplies are running short.
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