Listing your keywords will help other researchers find your work.
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- APA Format: Easy Explanations And Samples.
Here is an example of an APA format paper published as a chapter in a book, where the author has included a set of keywords. The author has chosen the terms listed in the title as keywords as well as several other related keywords that feature in their research. Silver, Yale University Press Thank you for your question. The guidelines for citing sources in an abstract differ per field of study.
In general, an abstract should be self-contained. However, if your research heavily depends on another it might be acceptable to include a citation. When writing an APA abstract, the keywords section has two lines That's an excellent question. I looked it up in the APA Publication Manual 6th Edition and it turns out that the second line should not be indented.
I will also add this to the article Have a language expert improve your writing. Check your paper for plagiarism in 10 minutes. Generate your APA citations for free! Receive feedback on language, structure and layout Professional editors proofread and edit your paper by focusing on: Academic style Vague sentences Grammar Style consistency See an example.
Is this article helpful? She has worked as a freelance writer and editor since , and joined the Scribbr team as an editor in June The Method section of an APA-style paper is the most straightforward to write, but requires precision. Your goal is to describe the details of your study in such a way that another researcher could duplicate your methods exactly. Note that in some studies e. Remember to write numbers out when they begin a sentence. How were the participants recruited?
Were they compensated for their time in any way? Carefully describe any stimuli, questionnaires, and so forth.
Creating an APA Title Page
It is unnecessary to mention things such as the paper and pencil used to record the responses, the data recording sheet, the computer that ran the data analysis, the color of the computer, and so forth. If you included a questionnaire, you should describe it in detail. For instance, note how many items were on the questionnaire, what the response format was e. Provide a sample item or two for your reader. If you have created a new instrument, you should attach it as an Appendix.
If you presented participants with various word lists to remember or stimuli to judge, you should describe those in detail here. Use subheadings to separate different types of stimuli if needed. Include an apparatus section if you used specialized equipment for your study e. What did participants do, and in what order? When you list a control variable e. In other words, what nuisance variable were you controlling for?
Your procedure should be as brief and concise as possible. Read through it. Did you repeat yourself anywhere? If so, how can you rearrange things to avoid redundancy?
You may either write the instructions to the participants verbatim or paraphrase, whichever you deem more appropriate. In this section, describe how you analyzed the data and what you found. If your data analyses were complex, feel free to break this section down into labeled subsections, perhaps one section for each hypothesis. Include a section for descriptive statistics List what type of analysis or test you conducted to test each hypothesis.
Refer to your Statistics textbook for the proper way to report results in APA style. Report exact p values to two or three decimal places e. However, for p-values less than.
APA Style Format - A Research Guide for Students
Following the presentation of all the statistics and numbers, be sure to state the nature of your finding s in words and whether or not they support your hypothesis e. This information can typically be presented in a sentence or two following the numbers within the same paragraph. Also, be sure to include the relevant means and SDs. It may be useful to include a table or figure to represent your results visually. Be sure to refer to these in your paper e. Remember that you may present a set of findings either as a table or as a figure, but not as both. For instance, if you present a table of means and standard deviations, you do not need to also report these in the text.
However, if you use a figure to represent your results, you may wish to report means and standard deviations in the text, as these may not always be precisely ascertained by examining the figure. Do describe the trends shown in the figure. Do not spend any time interpreting or explaining the results; save that for the Discussion section.
EasyBib Guide to Citing and Writing in APA Format
The goal of the discussion section is to interpret your findings and place them in the broader context of the literature in the area. A discussion section is like the reverse of the introduction, in that you begin with the specifics and work toward the more general funnel out. Some points to consider: Begin with a brief restatement of your main findings using words, not numbers. Did they support the hypothesis or not?
If not, why not, do you think? Were there any surprising or interesting findings? How do your findings tie into the existing literature on the topic, or extend previous research? What do the results say about the broader behavior under investigation? If you have surprising findings, you might discuss other theories that can help to explain the findings.
Begin with the assumption that your results are valid, and explain why they might differ from others in the literature. What are the limitations of the study? Perhaps these could be incorporated into the future research section, below. What additional questions were generated from this study? What further research should be conducted on the topic? What gaps are there in the current body of research? Whenever you present an idea for a future research study, be sure to explain why you think that particular study should be conducted. What new knowledge would be gained from it? How do these results relate to larger issues of human thoughts, feelings, and behavior?
The reference list or bibliography should be formatted in the following manner:. APA style provides numerous rules for accurately editing research papers. This fact does not mean unnecessary efforts but rather that effective and correct formatting of written research helps both the author to effectively pass along information to the reader.
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