Second, use more specific terms rather than more general ones. Third, avoid objectifying research participants. Instead, acknowledge their active contribution to the research. Table Low-level style includes all the specific guidelines pertaining to spelling, grammar, references and reference citations, numbers and statistics, figures and tables, and so on. These errors were committed by professional researchers but are probably similar to those that students commit the most too.
However, there are also many good websites on APA style, which do an excellent job of presenting the basics for beginning researchers. Here are a few of them. Because science is a large-scale collaboration among researchers, references to the work of other researchers are extremely important. Their importance is reflected in the extensive and detailed set of rules for formatting and using them. The references themselves are then listed alphabetically according to the last names of the first named author for each citation.
Many different kinds of works might be cited in APA-style articles and book chapters, including magazine articles, websites, government documents, and even television shows.
Here we will focus on formatting references for the three most common kinds of works cited in APA style: journal articles, books, and book chapters. Author, A. Title of article. Title of Journal, xx yy , pp—pp. Adair, J. American Psychologist, 58 1 , 15— There are several things to notice here. The reference includes a hanging indent. That is, the first line of the reference is not indented but all subsequent lines are.
This is true even when there are only two authors. Only the first word of the article title is capitalized. The only exceptions are for words that are proper nouns or adjectives e.
In the journal title, however, all the important words are capitalized. The journal title and volume number are italicized; however, the issue number listed within parentheses is not. At the very end of the reference is the digital object identifier DOI , which provides a permanent link to the location of the article on the Internet. Include this if it is available. It can generally be found in the record for the item on an electronic database e.
Kashdan, T. The upside of your dark side.
Zotero: Reference Management Tool
Title of chapter. Editor, B. Editor Eds. Location: Publisher. Lilienfeld, S. Dissociative identity disorder: Multiple personalities, multiple controversies. Lohr Eds.
Notice that references for books and book chapters are similar to those for journal articles, but there are several differences too. Only the first word of a book title is capitalized with the exceptions noted for article titles , and the entire title is italicized.
- APA Writing Style Guide.
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What counts as an idea that must be cited? In general, this includes phenomena discovered by other researchers, theories they have developed, hypotheses they have derived, and specific methods they have used e. Citations should also appear for factual information that is not common knowledge so that other researchers can check that information for themselves.
For example, in an article on the effect of cell phone usage on driving ability, the writer might cite official statistics on the number of cell phone—related accidents that occur each year. Among the ideas that do not need citations are widely shared methodological and statistical concepts e. Therefore, when in doubt, find an appropriate reference to cite or remove the questionable assertion.
When you cite a work in the text of your manuscript, there are two ways to do it. Both include only the last names of the authors and the year of publication. Here are some examples:. Although many people believe that women are more talkative than men, Mehl, Vazire, Ramirez-Esparza, Slatcher, and Pennebaker found essentially no difference in the number of words spoken by male and female college students. Notice several things.
APA Writing Style Guide - The Learning Center
One thing to notice about such parenthetical citations is that they are often placed at the end of the sentence, which minimizes their disruption to the flow of that sentence. In contrast to the first way of citing a work, this way always includes the year—even when the citation is given multiple times in the same paragraph.
Notice also that when there are multiple citations in the same set of parentheses, they are organized alphabetically by the name of the first author and separated by semicolons. There are no strict rules for deciding which of the two citation styles to use. Most articles and book chapters contain a mixture of the two. In general, however, the first approach works well when you want to emphasize the person who conducted the research—for example, if you were comparing the theories of two prominent researchers.
It also works well when you are describing a particular study in detail. The second approach works well when you are discussing a general idea and especially when you want to include multiple citations for the same idea. Recall that Mehl et al.
Much more than documents.
There is a strong positive correlation between the number of daily hassles and the number of symptoms people experience Kanner et al. Skip to content Increase Font Size. Chapter Presenting Your Research. Define APA style and list several of its most important characteristics. Identify three levels of APA style and give examples of each. All text on the title page, and throughout your paper, should be double-spaced. Beneath the title, type the author's name : first name, middle initial s , and last name.
Do not use titles Dr. Beneath the author's name, type the institutional affiliation , which should indicate the location where the author s conducted the research.
APA Citation for Government Documents
Begin a new page. Your abstract page should already include the page header described above. Beginning with the next line, write a concise summary of the key points of your research. Do not indent. Your abstract should contain at least your research topic, research questions, participants, methods, results, data analysis, and conclusions.
You may also include possible implications of your research and future work you see connected with your findings. Your abstract should be a single paragraph, double-spaced. Your abstract should be between and words. You may also want to list keywords from your paper in your abstract. To do this, indent as you would if you were starting a new paragraph, type Keywords: italicized , and then list your keywords. Listing your keywords will help researchers find your work in databases.
The page template for the new OWL site does not include contributors' names or the page's last edited date. However, select pages, like the Citation Style Chart , still include this information. Purdue Online Writing Lab. Title of resource. General Writing FAQs. Contributors' names.
Last edited date. Paiz, J.