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In Saudi Arabia , witchcraft remains a crime punishable by death.
Militarism produces special environments that allow for increased violence against women. War rapes have accompanied warfare in virtually every known historical era. Their homes will be sacked, and their wives will be raped. War rapes are rapes committed by soldiers, other combatants or civilians during armed conflict or war, or during military occupation, distinguished from sexual assaults and rape committed amongst troops in military service.
It also covers the situation where women are forced into prostitution or sexual slavery by an occupying power. During World War II the Japanese military established brothels filled with " comfort women ", girls and women who were forced into sexual slavery for soldiers, exploiting women for the purpose of creating access and entitlement for men.
Another example of violence against women incited by militarism during war took place in the Kovno Ghetto. Jewish male prisoners had access to and used Jewish women forced into camp brothels by the Nazis, who also used them. Rape was committed during the Bangladesh Liberation War by members of the Pakistani military and the militias that supported them.
Over a period of nine months, hundreds of thousands of women were raped. Susan Brownmiller , in her report on the atrocities , said that girls from the age of eight to grandmothers of seventy-five suffered attacks. Rape used as a weapon of war was practiced during the Bosnian War where rape was used as a highly systematized instrument of war by Serb armed forces predominantly targeting women and girls of the Bosniak ethnic group for physical and moral destruction.
Estimates of the number of women raped during the war range from 50, to 60,; as of only 12 cases have been prosecuted. The International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda recognized rape as a war crime. Presiding judge Navanethem Pillay said in a statement after the verdict: "From time immemorial, rape has been regarded as spoils of war. Now it will be considered a war crime. We want to send out a strong message that rape is no longer a trophy of war.
In , five U. After the rape the girl was shot in her head and the lower part of her body, from her stomach down to her feet, was set on fire. A study of female war veterans found that 90 percent had been sexually harassed. A survey found that 30 percent of female vets said they were raped in the military and a study of veterans who were seeking help for post-traumatic stress disorder found that 71 percent of the women said they were sexually assaulted or raped while serving. According to one report, the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant 's capture of Iraqi cities in June was accompanied by an upsurge in crimes against women, including kidnap and rape.
The younger girls They have been subjected to physical and sexual violence, including systematic rape and sex slavery. They've been exposed in markets in Mosul and in Raqqa, Syria, carrying price tags. Forced sterilization and forced abortion are forms of gender-based violence. Studies show forced sterilizations often target socially and politically disadvantaged groups such as racial and ethnic minorities, the poor, and indigenous populations.
In the United States, much of the history of forced sterilization is connected to the legacy of eugenics and racism in the United States. In Europe, there have been a number of lawsuits and accusations towards the Czech Republic and Slovakia of sterilizing Roma women without adequate information and waiting period. Slovakia has been condemned on the issue of forced sterilization of Roma women several times by the European Court for Human Rights see V. Slovakia , N. Slovakia and I. In Peru , in , Alberto Fujimori launched a family planning initiative that especially targeted poor and indigenous women.
In total, over , women were sterilized, with over , believed to have been coerced. The procedures have also been found to have been negligent, with less than half using proper anesthetic. In China, the one child policy included forced abortions and forced sterilization. When police officers misuse their power as agents of the state to physically and sexually harass and assault victims, the survivors, including women, feel much less able to report the violence.
Human rights violations perpetrated by police and military personnel in many countries are correlated with decreased access to public health services and increased practices of risky behavior among members of vulnerable groups, such as women and female sex workers. Police abuse in this context has been linked to a wide range of risky behaviors and health outcomes, including post-traumatic stress disorder PTSD , and substance abuse.
Stoning , or lapidation, refers to a form of capital punishment whereby an organized group throws stones at an individual until the person dies. Stoning is a punishment that is included in the laws of several countries, including Iran, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Pakistan, Yemen, the United Arab Emirates, and some states in Nigeria, as punishment for adultery. It is a judicial punishment in various countries for specific crimes, including sex outside marriage. These punishments employed for sexual relations outside marriage, apart from constituting a form of violence in themselves, can also deter victims of sexual violence from reporting the crime, because the victims may themselves be punished if they cannot prove their case, if they are deemed to have been in the company of an unrelated male, or if they were unmarried and not virgins at the time of the rape.
Female genital mutilation FGM is defined by the World Health Organization WHO as "all procedures that involve partial or total removal of the external female genitalia, or other injury to the female genital organs for non-medical reasons".
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It reflects deep-rooted inequality between the sexes, and constitutes an extreme form of discrimination against women. According to some local practitioners, it is believed that FGM is linked to cultural rites and customs. FGM is defined as a "harmful traditional practice"  in accordance to the Inter-African Committee.
Although FGM is today associated with developing countries, this practice was common until the s in parts of the Western world, too. FGM was considered a standard medical procedure in the United States for most of the 19th and 20th centuries. The medicalization of FGM in the United States allowed these practices to continue until the second part of the 20th century, with some procedures covered by Blue Cross Blue Shield Insurance until The Istanbul Convention prohibits female genital mutilation Article There exist several approaches that were set up by international health organizations and civil societies for example, Tostan aimed at eliminating the practice of FGM in implemented countries:.
Some scholars suggests that, when dealing with FGM, it is necessary to take lessons from history, particularly 19th-century campaign against foot-binding in China,  which was successful. Breast ironing also known as "breast flattening" is the practice of pounding and massaging the breasts of a pubescent girl , using hard or heated objects, in an attempt to try to make them stop developing or disappear. In most developed and many developing countries , birth takes place in an increasingly medicalized environment; with numerous surgical interventions that the pregnant woman can sometimes be coerced into accepting, or which are done without her consent, or which are unnecessary.
Many such practices originate in patriarchal ideologies. The WHO stated: "in normal birth, there should be a valid reason to interfere with the natural process. The aim of care is to achieve a healthy mother and child with the least possible level of intervention compatible with safety. The term "obstetric violence" is particularly used in Latin American countries, where the law prohibits such behavior. Such laws exist in several countries, including Argentina, Puerto Rico and Venezuela. Indigenous women around the world are often targets of sexual assault or physical violence. Many indigenous communities are rural, with few resources and little help from the government or non-state actors.
These groups also often have strained relationships with law enforcement, making prosecution difficult. Many indigenous societies also find themselves at the center of land disputes between nations and ethnic groups, often resulting in these communities bearing the brunt of national and ethnic conflicts.
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Violence against indigenous women is often perpetrated by the state, such as in Peru , in the s. President Alberto Fujimori in office from to has been accused of genocide and crimes against humanity as a result of a forced sterilization program put in place by his administration. Bolivia has the highest rate of domestic violence in Latin America.
Guatemalan indigenous women have also faced extensive violence. Throughout over three decades of conflict, Maya women and girls have continued to be targeted. The concept of white dominion over indigenous women's bodies has been rooted in American history since the beginning of colonization. The theory of manifest destiny went beyond simple land extension and into the belief that European settlers had the right to exploit Native women's bodies as a method of taming and "humanizing" them.
Canada has an extensive problem with violence against indigenous women, by both indigenous men and non-aboriginals. The history of residential schools and economic inequality of indigenous Canadians has resulted in communities facing violence, unemployment, drug use, alcoholism, political corruption, and high rates of suicide. Thousands of Native Canadian women have gone missing or been killed in the past 30 years, with little representation or attention from the government.
Efforts to make the Canadian public aware of these women's disappearances have mostly been led by Aboriginal communities, who often reached across provinces to support one another. In , prime minister Stephen Harper commented that the issue of murdered and missing indigenous women was "not high on our radar",  prompting outrage in already frustrated indigenous communities. In the United States, Native American women are more than twice as likely to experience violence than any other demographic. Tribes currently cannot exercise criminal jurisdiction over non-Natives. In theory, tribes can send cases to the federal level in order to prosecute non-Natives, but the majority of these cases are thrown out.
Although the version of the act does allow tribes to prosecute non-Natives for domestic violence and violating restraining orders, it does not allow prosecution of perpetrators of incidents not included in a bought of domestic violence. Immigrant and refugee women often face violence, both in the private sphere by partners and other family members and in the public sphere by the police and other authorities. These women are often in a vulnerable position: they do not speak the language of the country they are in, they do not know its laws, and sometimes they are in a legal position where they may be deported if they make contact with the authorities.
Women who seek protection from armed conflict in their countries of origin often face more violence while travelling to the destination country or when they arrive there. Trans women are at higher risk of experiencing violence than cisgender women. Sport-related violence against women refers to any physical, sexual, mental acts that are "perpetrated by both male athletes and by male fans or consumers of sport and sporting events, as well as by coaches of female athletes". The documenting reports and literature suggest that there are obvious connections between contemporary sport and violence against women.
Such events as the World Cup , the Olympic and Commonwealth Games "have highlighted the connections between sports spectatorship and intimate partner violence, and the need for police, authorities and services to be aware of this when planning sporting events". Sport-related violence can occur in various contexts and places, including homes, pubs, clubs, hotel rooms, the streets.
Violence against women is a topic of concern in the United States' collegiate athletic community. From the UVA lacrosse murder, in which a male athlete was charged guilty with second degree murder of his girlfriend, to the University of Colorado Football Scandal when players were charged with nine alleged sexual assaults,  studies suggest that athletes are at higher risk for committing sexual assault against women than the average student. Sociologist Timothy Curry, after conducting an observational analysis of two big time sports' locker room conversations, deduced that the high risk of male student athletes for gender abuse is a result of the team's subculture.
Claims have been made that the atmosphere changes when an outsider especially women intrude in the locker room. In the wake of the reporter Lisa Olson being harassed by a Patriots player in the locker room in , she reflected, "We are taught to think we must have done something wrong and it took me a while to realize I hadn't done anything wrong.
Steve Chandler notes that because of their celebrity status on campus, "athletes are more likely to be scrutinized or falsely accused than non-athletes. In response to the proposed link between college athletes and gender-based violence, and media coverage holding Universities as responsible for these scandals more universities are requiring athletes to attend workshops that promote awareness. For example, St. John's University holds sexual assault awareness classes in the fall for its incoming student athletes.
In order to eliminate violence, the NCAVA is dedicated to empowering individuals affected by athlete violence through comprehensive services including advocacy, education and counseling. Cyberbullying is a form of intimidation using electronic forms of contact. In the 21st century, cyberbullying has become increasingly common, especially among teenagers in Western countries. Activism refers to "a doctrine or practice that emphasizes direct vigorous action especially in support of or opposition to one side of a controversial issue".
In order to better comprehend the anti-violence movements against VAW, there is a need to also understand the generic historical background of feminist movements in a holistic manner.
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Talking about the international women's movement, many feminist scholars have categorized these movements into three waves  according to their different beliefs, strategies and goals. The emergence of the first women's movements, or so called the first wave of feminism, dated back in the years the late 19th Century and early 20th Century in the United States and Europe.
During this period, feminist movements developed from the context of industrialization and liberal politics that triggered the rise of feminist groups concerned with gaining equal access and opportunity for women. The second wave of feminist movements was the series of movements from the period of the late s to early s. It was noted by feminist scholars that this wave could be characterized as a period of women's liberation and the rise of a branch of feminism known as radical feminism.
The third wave of feminism is the newest wave of feminism led by young feminists whose understanding and context are of the globalized world order and the technological advances that have come with it. Also, this wave is a transition of the fall communism  : 17 to more complex issues of new kinds of 'warfare' [ clarification needed ] , threats and violence.
This new wave also "embraces ambiguity"  : 16 and introduced a feminist approach of ' intersectionality ' that includes the issues of race, gender, age, and class. Nonetheless, the VAW movement was initiated in the s where some feminist movements started to bring the discussion on the issue of violence into the feminist discourse  and that many other groups, on the national as well as international levels, had attempted to push for the betterment of women through lobbying of the state officials and delegates, demanding the conferences on 'gender issues'  and thus made the VAW known to a wider range of population.
Therefore, to put this into the theoretical context, VAW can be categorized along with the second and third waves of feminism which share a focus on violence. VAW activist movements come in many forms, operating at international, national, and local levels  and utilizing different approaches based on health and human rights frameworks.
The term "battered women" was used in a number of VAW movements and had its root in the early stage of organizing efforts to tackle the problem of violence against women in many regions of the world such as Africa, Asia Pacific, Latin American and the Caribbean. Many of these groups take a human rights approach as the integral framework of their activism. These VAW movements also employ the idea that "women's rights are human rights", transform the concepts and ideas of human rights, which are mostly reckoned to be " Western concepts" and ' vernacularize them into the concepts that can be understood in their local institutions.
On the local or national level, the VAW movements are diverse and differ in their strategic program of intervention. The strategies used in a number of the movements focus on the individual level with the emphases on individuals, relationships and family. Also, many of them take the 'preventive' as an approach to tackle the issues on the ground by encouraging people to "reexamine their attitudes and beliefs" in order to trigger and create fundamental changes in these "deep-rooted beliefs and behaviors".
In order to achieve the objectives of the movement, many activists and scholars argue that they have to initiate changes in cultural attitudes and norms on a communal level. The movements of VAW in this context employ a strategy that is based on the 'prevention' approach, which is applicable on individual and societal levels: in families and communities.
This movement encourages the individuals and small populations to rethink their attitudes and beliefs in order to create a possibility to alter these deep-rooted beliefs and behaviors, which lead to the acts of violence against women. They call this a "raising voices" approach. This approach employs an 'ad hoc' framework that can be used alongside the individual approach where the strategy is to aggravate the status quo issues onto the individuals' and communities' perception and establish a common ground of interests for them to push for the movement, all in a short time period. A number of regions of the world have come together to address violence against women.
The Latin American and Caribbean Network Against Domestic and Sexual Violence, formed in , includes representation from twenty-one different countries and has been instrumental in increasing the visibility of VAW. On the transnational or regional level, the anti-violence movements also deploy different strategies based on the specificities of their cultures and beliefs in their particular regions. On this level, the activist movements are known as "transnational feminist networks" or TFNs.
On an international level, the movements that advocate for women's rights and against VAW are the mixture of civil society actors from domestic and regional levels. The objectives of these VAW movements focus on "creating shared expectations" within the domestic and regional levels as well as "mobilizing numbers of domestic civil society" to create "standards in global civil society".
In addition, the United Nations also plays a vital role in promoting and campaigning for the VAW movements on the international level. This campaign "calls on governments, civil society, women's organizations, young people, the private sector, the media and the entire UN system to join forces in addressing the global pandemic of violence against women and girls".
In conclusion, each level of activism is intertwined and has the common purpose to end violence against women. Activism on local levels can significantly affect national, transnational, and international levels as well. In a scholarly article on Combating Violence Against Women , the authors illustrated from their research analysis on how the norms of international society can shape and influence policy making on the domestic or national level and vice versa.
They argue that there are three mechanisms which have effects on the making of national policies as well as global agreements and conventions: "1 the influence of global treaties and documents such as CEDAW on women's rights" - on the national policies "2 the influence of regional agreements on VAW particularly after certain tipping points are reached " - on both domestic policies and international conventions and "3 regional demonstration effects or pressure for conformity captured as diffusion within regions" - on the international norms and agreements.
Efforts to fight violence against women can take many forms and access to justice, or lack thereof, for such violence varies greatly depending on the justice system. International and regional instruments are increasingly used as the basis for national legislation and policies to eradicate violence against women.
This led the Brazilian government to enact in the Maria da Penha Law, the country's first law against domestic violence against women. As violence is often committed by a family member, women first started by lobbying their governments to set up shelters for domestic violence survivors. In , 18 out of the 20 countries in the region had legislation on domestic or family violence, and 11 countries addressed sexual violence in their laws.
Legislative measures to protect victims can include restraining orders, which can be found in Colombia, El Salvador, Guatemala, Paraguay, Venezuela, Turkey, the United States and many western European countries for instance. Courts can also be allowed by law Germany, to order the perpetrator to leave the home so that victims do not have to seek shelter.
Countries were urged to repeal discriminatory legislation by following the review of the Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action in Egypt, for instance, abolished a law that exempted men from rape charges when marrying their victims.
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However, the goal of antiviolence legislation is often to keep the families together, regardless of the best interests of women, which perpetuate domestic violence. Innovative measures have been pioneered in a number of countries to end violence against women. In Brazil and Jordan, women's police stations have been introduced, and one-stop women's shelters were created in Malaysia and Nicaragua. Marital rape has been illegal in every American state and the District of Columbia since , but is rarely prosecuted in America.
In the UN General Assembly passed its first resolution calling for the protection of defenders of women's human rights. There can be a de jure or de facto acceptance of violent behaviors and lack of remedies for victims. Measures to address violence against women range from access to legal-aid to the provision of shelters and hotlines for victims. Despite advances in legislation and policies, the lack of implementation of the measures put in place prevents significant progress in eradicating violence against women globally.
Gender-Based Violence (Violence Against Women and Girls)
This failure to apply existing laws and procedures is often due to the persisting issue of gender stereotyping. The relation between violence against women and marriage laws, regulations and traditions has also been discussed. The criminal code states at Paragraph 41 that there is no crime if an act is committed while exercising a legal right; examples of legal rights include: "The punishment of a wife by her husband, the disciplining by parents and teachers of children under their authority within certain limits prescribed by law or by custom". The Council of Europe Convention on preventing and combating violence against women and domestic violence , also known as the Istanbul Convention, is the first legally binding instrument in Europe in the field of domestic violence and violence against women,  and came into force in In its Preamble, the Convention states that "the realisation of de jure and de facto equality between women and men is a key element in the prevention of violence against women".
The Convention also provides a definition of domestic violence as "all acts of physical, sexual, psychological or economic violence that occur within the family or domestic unit or between former or current spouses or partners, whether or not the perpetrator shares or has shared the same residence with the victim". Template:Domestic violence.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Violent acts committed primarily against women and girls. For the journal, see Violence Against Women journal. Women's suffrage Muslim countries US. First Second Third Fourth. Variants general.
Variants religious. By country. Lists and categories. Lists Articles Feminists by nationality Literature American feminist literature Feminist comic books. Main article: Rape. Main articles: Marital rape and domestic violence. Main articles: Domestic violence and Intimate partner violence. Main article: Forced marriage. Main article: Acid throwing. Main articles: Reproductive coercion , Forced pregnancy , and Bride kidnapping.
Further information: Dating abuse and Teen dating violence. Further information: Campus sexual assault. Main article: Stalking. Main article: Sexual harassment. Main articles: Human trafficking and Forced prostitution. Main article: Widow. See also: Widow inheritance and Sexual cleansing. See also: Rape during the Bangladesh Liberation War. See also: Rape during the Bosnian War. See also: Rwandan Genocide. See also: Mahmudiyah killings. Main article: Female genital mutilation.
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International criticism concentrates on the lack of measures to combat violence against women in general and in particular on the lack of a national action plan to combat such violence and on the lack of legislation on domestic violence. Compared to Sweden, Finland has been slower to reform legislation on violence against women. In Sweden, domestic violence was already illegal in , while in Finland such violence was not outlawed until , over a hundred years later.
In Sweden the punishment of victims of incest was abolished in , but not until in Finland. Rape within marriage was criminalised in Sweden in , but the equivalent Finnish legislation only came into force in — making Finland one of the last European countries to criminalise marital rape. In addition, assaults taking place on private property did not become impeachable offences in Finland until Only in did victims of sexual offences and domestic violence in Finland become entitled to government-funded counselling and support services for the duration of their court cases.
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