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However, it is widely used in other fields of study as well. Even though the APA citation style originated in the natural sciences, it is now commonly used in the humanities cf. Samac et al. You should know that the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association APA provides a detailed guideline to writing academic research papers, addressing all formal requirements. This overview, however, focuses on how to quote in the APA format and does not present the Manual in its entirety cf.
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Recommended: Harvard Referencing. As you already know, APA citation is an author-year-system. To cite properly using APA style, these components are crucial cf. Make sure to stick to the order of elements and the punctuation marks as presented here.
If your citation marks the end of a sentence, it must be put before the full stop, as it is part of the quote cf. Hascher n. For example:. If your citation marks the end of a sentence, it must be placed before the full stop, as it is part of the quote cf. Examples: How to quote in APA citation style in the reference section cf.
APA Referencing Style Guide
Gaddes, W. Eine neuropsychologische Betrachtung. Berlin: Springer. Whitney, E. Understanding nu trition 12 th ed.
- Citation Examples.
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Australia: Wadsworth Cengage Learning. What is plagiarism? Plagiarism checker online. Plagiarism software in details. Plagiarism test tool. Editing PLUS. Our quality standard. Prices for proofreading. Proofreading or editing. The following table presents an overview of how to quote in APA citation style in the text as well as provide full references in the reference section. UCOL , Hascher n. What is distinct about the APA citation style is the above categorisation which is based on the number of authors of a source. Moreover, the latter also distinguishes the APA citation style from other citation styles.
The table above shows that the APA citation style requires you to list all the authors of a source for full reference in your reference section. Only sources with eight or more authors are treated differently. The new APA citation style guidelines 9 th ed. However, you must provide the last date of access if the contents of a particular website quoted are likely to be edited over time or even deleted. The best practice is to be consistent and always provide the date of last access, and not just when in doubt. Furthermore, if you are unsure about quoting a specific source in APA citation style, check with your supervisor.
It is important to check the format required by the APA citation style in order to cite those sources in the reference section below.
Thesis - APA 6th referencing style - Library Guides at University of Queensland Library
If in doubt, you should definitely look things up in the APA citation style manual. For instance, maybe you would like to quote a rather specific source that is not listed below cf. The APA citation style manual is a detailed guideline that includes rules on how to deal with such special cases. Recommended: How to cite a book. Where can you find this manual? Every university library should have a number of copies of the APA citation style manual, as well as manuals for other citation styles.
However, the table below provides you with a solid foundation on APA citation style basics. Moreover, quoting sources which are not among the most common ones as listed here is the exception rather than the rule. The following overview is adapted from Samac et al. APA manual ; Hascher o. Szuchman If you would like to quote using APA citation style, you have to make sure that the first line of each reference is left-justified and all following lines are indented cf.
Beins :. Beins If you are writing your paper in another language, e. German, but you are quoting an English source, the APA citation style prescribes sticking to the abbreviations used in the source language. For example, Eds. Editors remains Eds. Herausgeber, the German word for editors remains Hrsg.
In the same vein, n. Haddad-Zubel et al. Citing internet sources in APA citation style follows a set of rules. To be on the safe side, you should definitely check what the APA citation style manual says about a particular source you wish to quote in your text. However, while quoting in APA citation style you should bear two things in mind cf. UCOL 18 :.
If you are quoting this source for the first time in your text, you should use the full name as well as providing an acronym:.see url
APA Citation Style, 6th Edition : Theses & Dissertations
But from then onwards, you will only have to use the acronym to quote correctly in APA citation style:. The difference between a bibliography and a reference list lies in the sources that make up each list. Regarding the APA citation style, you have to provide a reference list—i. The table below is an overview of the main differences APA Style between a reference list for APA citation style and a bibliography:.
If you have to quote using APA citation style, the citations in the text follow an author-year-system, just like Harvard Style. However, the Harvard style requires a reference list which should also contain the sources that were used during the literature research but were not quoted. In contrast to this, it is sufficient to list the sources cited in the text for APA citation style cf.
Using an author-year-system like APA citation style only requires that the source citations are included in the text as such and do not appear in footnotes cf. If you are planning to quote using APA citation style in your thesis, you should check your reference list to make sure it meets the following rules:.
You should always try to access the original sources if possible. If you are unable to find or access the original source, you can then insert a secondary quote in APA citation style, but bear in mind to use these sparingly cf. UCOL 11 :. Recommended: How to cite an article. Polit, D. Nursing research: Generating and assessing evidence for nursing practice 8 th ed.
Just as in any other citation system the APA citation style is fairly simple to follow once you become acquainted with the basic rules. If you want to use the APA citation style in your thesis, you should bear in mind the following:. Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association. APA Style American Psychological Association. Bibliography Versus Reference List. Beins , Bernhard C. Carlson , Alexis IRSC Libraries.