There are also multilingual Moroccans who are able to speak more than two varieties. At one extreme, it is considered to be a low variety in relation to Standard Arabic. On the other extreme, it is seen as a modern language. Instead, it is perceived to be an important component of the Moroccan identity, and a creative language which is capable of adapting to modernity.
Recently, Moroccan Arabic has a written form thanks to its massive use in the media and the new technologies, cell phones, social networks…etc. Amazigh varieties are in the second place in relation to verbal communication. Tamazight became standardized, taught in schools and used in Amazigh literature and media. Tamazight was recognized as an official language in the new constitution of July It is the mother tongue of Amazighophones, including its three varieties: TArifit in the north east, Tamazight in the center and Tachelhit in the south west.
It is also considered as a multilingual and multicultural heritage. The official formal language in Morocco is Arabic. It was official since 6 the independence of Morocco. It is mutually intelligible between all the arabophones from Morocco till Iraq. Classical Arabic was used in religious education but never used in the daily communication.
Although Classical and Standard Arabic are the official languages in Morocco, they are not native languages. We cannot discuss the Moroccan linguistic situation without mentioning the foreign languages. Colonization caused the existence of some foreign languages, directly or indirectly. French and Spanish existence was a direct result of the colonization, while English was an indirect one.
Spanish had faced a French dominance. As a result, its sociolinguistic functions were reduced little by little since the Moroccan independence. Spanish lost its vitality and it exists only in the regions which were under the Spanish domination in the colonial period Tetouan, Nadour ….
Spanish is somehow present in the Moroccan media the news mainly. It is also taught in schools and universities. According to El-gherbi Spanish is the third foreign language in Morocco. If we are talking about foreign languages in Morocco, We may put languages in the following order: French, the first foreign language; English, the second foreign language ; Spanish, the third foreign language.
French and English are the focus of this research paper. After discussing the linguistic situation on Morocco, now we can discuss their existence within this linguistic situation, starting by French as its contact with Moroccans is older than the contact of English. French was the official language of the protectorate regime and its institutions since the signing of the treaty in until the independence in It was taught in Moroccan schools after the independence with the help of the French cooperants.
In Economy it is the main language. It is used also in the public life and media. French is rejected by many for historical reasons; however, Boukous states that French is more used than Standard Arabic in the oral interaction, in institutions requiring communication in a formal frame work. English on the other hand is the second foreign language in Morocco.
\"The French Colonization of Morocco\" | Morocco | French Colonial Empire
If we refer to French as a colonial language, then we may consider English the language of globalization and the lingua-franca of the world. There are two main events which lead to the contact between Moroccans and English. The first event was when Tangier became an international zone by law in ; many British and Americans were moving to Tangier. As a result, English was the lingua-franca used to communicate between the speech communities existing in this international spot. Globalization had encouraged English language learning in order to adapt to the demands of contemporary life.
The foreign languages are very important; they enable the country to be open to the world, and this openness is necessary in the Globalization era. The French domination with its strong historical roots is facing a wide spread of English - The international language. After , Morocco became independent from France, but not from French. Moroccans faced the fact that French was the only high variety in this linguistic environment, which makes it socially prestigious.
As a result, French was used in the majority of domains and it was the only language that monopolizes teaching scientific subjects. English remained one of the foreign languages that a student optionally chose to learn during the last three years of high school education. French on the other hand is taught since the third year of primary school. This concerns the Moroccan public school. In order to discuss the French dominance on education, I started an investigation by asking junior and secondary high school students. In the last year of junior high school, the number of hours dedicated to teaching foreign languages is 6 hours per week, 4 hours to French and 2 hours to English.
In high school, the number of hours dedicated to foreign languages differs from one discipline to another. Concerning sciences, 7 hours are dedicated to foreign languages in the first year: 4 hours to French and 3h to English. And in the second year and baccalaureate year, 8 hours are dedicated to foreign languages: 5h to French and 3h to English. To conclude, the hours dedicated to teaching French are more than the hours dedicated to teaching English.
So in all the levels and disciplines except for languages discipline, where the number of hours dedicated to French is equivalent to the number of hours dedicated to English. French is the dominant foreign language. So, from all these facts, we can notice that there is a French domination. The English spread will be discussed further on in this chapter Always in relation to education. As mentioned in the first chapter, English is the language of globalization and the lingua franca of the world. Regardless to the historical reasons that led to the contact between Moroccans and English, the fact that English is the first international language facilitates its spread.
The speakers of English have more chances to access the international market than speakers of French, in all the domains: economy, science, technology and even art. So in order to adapt to the demands of contemporary life, people are encouraged or sometimes obliged to learn English language. In October , the number of English departments in Morocco reached eleven [ … ] the flow of students wishing to register in English departments were often wider than administrative expectations.
Tetouan, Kenitra, - etc. Although the increase of registrants in English departments in this example is not stable - because of the drops caused by the opening of new English departments and the drops in the number of baccalaureate holders -, we can notice that this increase throughout the years was important. In the case of Fes University, the increase was not that significant. From in 82, the number of registrants had decreased to in 83 - 84, then increased again to in 87 - The important increase in this example is that of Casablanca University.
Just in one year, the number of registrants in the English department had increased significantly, from in 81 - 82 to in 82 - The increase in the number of registrants in English departments led to an increase in the number of graduates.
- Other Subject Areas;
- 6. French Morocco ()?
- price essay on the picturesque.
- Morocco - African Studies - Oxford Bibliographies?
- maryland bankers association essay contest?
As a result, the number of Moroccan English language teachers increased as well. This increase in the number of English teachers is a result of the spread of English, a result that will help that spread go even wider. The number of registrants in the English department is more than the number of registrants in the French department. P, Fes, Morocco: Faculty of letters. Moroccan society. Between a French dominance and an English spread education as a sample Bachelor Thesis, 50 Pages. Essay french colonization morocco Pinterest.
Colonialism Political social economic cultural domination of a. Culture of The United Kingdom of Morocco history people. Morocco history geography Britannica com. French Morocco. Colonial conflict with Britain edit.
The Creation of the Moroccan Colonial Archive, 1880–1930
Restoration Spain s Military Spainthenandnow. French protectorate in Morocco Wikipedia Pinterest July Germany felt provoked by French military intervention in Morocco which amounted. The Moroccan Linguistic Situation Studentnis org. Morocco history geography Britannica com French Colonial Empires. French colonial empire Wikiwand WsWs. Colonialism Political social economic cultural domination of a SlidePlayer.
go site Women in Morocco Wikipedia. The Colonization of Africa King. The French Colonization of Morocco Inside. The Colonization of Africa Moroccan cuisine is heavenly a unique mix of French and middle eastern flavors I especially enjoyed wonderful lemon chicken tagines with couscous as well. I think the only remaining colony is New Swabia in Antarctica although officially it is under the Norwegian part of Antarctica The View from Fez blogger.
Flag of St Pierre and Miquelon.
- Who can edit:!
- French protectorate in Morocco.
- The Creation of the Moroccan Colonial Archive, – History and Anthropology: Vol 18, No 1!
- Most Read Articles!
- 4 - France and Spain in Morocco?
- Julia Clancy-Smith.
Home Essays Revolvy. French Empire png. Note The dotted line is a trend line based on a moving four year average Source International Migration Institute University of Oxford.